By David C. Cassidy
By David C. Cassidy
By Kevin C. Elliott
By Benoît Godin
Innovation is in all places. on this planet of products (technology), but additionally on the planet of phrases: innovation is mentioned within the medical and technical literature, but in addition within the social sciences and arts. Innovation is additionally a crucial thought within the renowned imaginary, within the media and in public coverage. Innovation has develop into the logo of the trendy society and a panacea for resolving many problems.
Today, innovation is spontaneously understood as technological innovation due to its contribution to financial "progress". but for 2,500 years, innovation had not anything to do with economics in a favorable experience. Innovation used to be pejorative and political. It used to be a contested inspiration in philosophy, faith, politics and social affairs. Innovation purely received de-contested within the final century. This happened steadily starting after the French revolution. Innovation shifted from a vice to a advantage. Innovation turned an tool for reaching political and social goals.
In this booklet, Benoît Godin lucidly examines the representations and meaning(s) of innovation over the years, its diversified makes use of, and the contexts within which the concept that emerged and altered. This historical past is prepared round 3 sessions or episteme: the prohibition episteme, the software episteme, and the worth episteme.
By Edward C. Moore
Papers touching on Peirce's philosophy of technological know-how got on the Harvard Congress by means of representatives from Italy, France, Sweden, Finland, Korea, India, Denmark, Greece, Brazil, Belgium, Spain, Germany, and the USA. The Charles S. Peirce Sesquicentennial overseas Congress opened at Harvard college on September five, 1989, and concluded at the 10th—Peirce's birthday. The Congress was once host to nearly 450 students from 26 diverse international locations. the current quantity is a compilation of chosen papers provided at that Congress.
The philosophy of technological know-how and its good judgment are subject matters within the paintings of Charles Peirce which were of maximum curiosity to students. Peirce used to be himself a actual scientist. He labored as an assistant on the Harvard Astronomical Observatory from 1869 to 1872 and made a sequence of astronomical observations there from 1872 to 1875. Solon I. Bailey says of those observations, "The first try on the Harvard Observatory to figure out the shape of the Milky manner, or the galactic method, used to be made by way of Charles S. Peirce....The research used to be of a pioneer nature, based on scant data."
Peirce additionally made significant contributions in fields as assorted as mathematical common sense and psychology. C. I. Lewis has remarked that "the head and font of mathematical common sense are present in the calculus of propositional features as constructed by way of Peirce and Schroeder." Peirce thus invented, nearly from complete fabric, semiotics - the technological know-how of the which means of indicators. Ogden and Richards, the British critics, say that "by a ways the main complicated and made up our minds try and provide an account of symptoms and their meanings is that of the yank philosopher C. S. Peirce, from whom William James took the belief and the time period Pragmatism, and whose Algebra of Dyadic family was once constructed via Schroeder."
By Jeremy A. Greene
The moment half the 20th century witnessed the emergence of a brand new version of power disease―diagnosed at the foundation of numerical deviations instead of signs and handled on a preventive foundation sooner than any overt symptoms of ailment develop―that arose in live performance with a suite of secure, powerful, and hugely marketable prescribed drugs. In Prescribing through Numbers, physician-historian Jeremy A. Greene examines the mechanisms in which medications and protracted ailment different types outline each other inside of scientific study, scientific perform, and pharmaceutical advertising, and he explores how this interplay has profoundly altered the adventure, politics, ethics, and economic climate of well-being in late-twentieth-century the US.
Prescribing via Numbers highlights the complicated ancient function of prescribed drugs within the transformation of disorder different types. Greene narrates the increasing definition of the 3 significant cardiovascular probability factors―hypertension, diabetes, and excessive cholesterol―each intersecting with the profession of a specific pharmaceutical agent. Drawing on files from company information and modern pharmaceutical advertising literature in live performance with the scientific literature and the documents of researchers, clinicians, and public healthiness advocates, Greene produces a desirable account of the growth of the pharmaceutical remedy of power disorder over the last fifty years.
While acknowledging the impact of pharmaceutical advertising and marketing on physicians, Greene avoids demonizing drug businesses. particularly, his provocative and finished research sheds gentle at the expanding presence of the subjectively fit yet hugely medicated person within the American scientific panorama, suggesting how old research can assist to deal with the issues inherent within the application of pharmaceutical prevention.
By George Terzis,Robert Arp
By Umberto Bottazini,Amy Dahan Dalmedico
By Mary Blaine Campbell
Campbell's realized and brilliantly perceptive new e-book analyzes a move component of texts during which worlds have been made and unmade; those texts contain cosmographies, colonial experiences, works of usual philosophy and ordinary historical past, marvelous voyages, unique fictions, and confessions. one of the authors she discusses are André Thevet, Thomas Hariot, Francis Bacon, Galileo, Margaret Cavendish, and Aphra Behn. Campbell's emphasis is on advancements in England and France, yet she considers works in languages except English or French that have been popular within the polyglot ebook tradition of the time.
With over thirty well-chosen illustrations, ask yourself and technology complements our figuring out of the tradition of early glossy Europe, the historical past of technology, and the advance of literary varieties, together with the unconventional and ethnography.
By Sir Jonathan Hutchinson